A Brief History of Programming Languages

This is based on the Wikipedia article Timeline of Programming Languages as it appeared on 2/15/18. The article itself is much more extensive, this timeline will restrict itself to the better-known languages.

This is a highly opinionated list that has some exceptions I’ll probably add eventually…

  • 1954-1957 – Fortran (from concept to implementation) – John Backus at IBM.
  • 1956-1959 – LISP (from concept to implementation) – John McCarthy.
  • 1959-1960 – COBOL (from concept to implementation) – CODASYL Committee.
  • 1964 – BASIC – John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College.
  • 1970 – PASCAL – Niklaus Wirth and Kathleen Jensen.
  • 1972 – Smalltalk – Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg, Dan Ingalls, XEROX PARC.
  • 1972 – C – Dennis Ritchie.
  • 1972 – SQL – IBM.
  • 1980 – C with Classes – Bjarne Stroustrup.
  • 1983 – Turbo Pascal – Anders Hejlsberg at Borland.
  • 1985 – QuickBasic – Microsoft.
  • 1986 – Eiffel – Bertrand Meyer.
  • 1986 – Object Pascal – Apple.
  • 1986 – Erlang – Joe Armstrong and others at Ericsson.
  • 1987 – Perl – Larry Wall.
  • 1987 – Mathematica – Wolfram Research.
  • 1988 – Tcl – John Ousterhout.
  • 1989 – Turbo Pascal OOP – Anders Hejlsberg at Borland.
  • 1990 – Haskell.
  • 1991 – Python – Guido van Rossum.
  • 1991 – Visual Basic – Alan Cooper (who sold it to Microsoft).
  • 1992 – Borland Pascal
  • 1993 – Lua – Roberto Ierusalimschy and others at Tecgraf, PUC-Rio.
  • 1995 – Borland Delphi – Anders Hejlsberg at Borland.
  • 1995 – ColdFusion – Allaire.
  • 1995 – Java – James Gosling at Sun Microsystems.
  • 1995 – PHP – Rasmus Lerdorf.
  • 1995 – Ruby – Yukihiro Matsumoto.
  • 1995 – JavaScript – Brendan Eich at Netscape.
  • 1997 – Squeak / Smalltalk – Alan Kay and others at Apple.
  • 1997 – ECMAScript.
  • 2000 – C# – Anders Hejlsberg at Microsoft.
  • 2001 – Visual Basic .NET – Microsoft.
  • 2004 – FreeBasic – Andre Victor.
  • 2005 – F# – Don Syme and others at Microsoft.
  • 2005 – Haxe – Nicolas Cannasse.
  • 2007 – Clojure – Rich Hickey.
  • 2008 – Nim – Andreas Rumpf.
  • 2009 – Go – Google.
  • 2010 – Rust – Graydon Hoare and others at Mozilla.
  • 2011 – Dart – Google.
  • 2011 – Kotlin – JetBrains.
  • 2012 – Elixir – Jose Valim.
  • 2012 – Elm – Evan Czaplicki.
  • 2012 – TypeScript – Anders Hejlsberg and others at Microsoft.
  • 2014 – Hack – Facebook.
  • 2014 – Swift – Apple.

QuickBasic Colors & Shapes

Colors

The COLOR statement in QuickBasic allows one to change the text/background. The sixteen colors available are (names from QBasic Wikibook; hexadecimal from QB64 Wiki):

  • 00: Black – #000050
  • 01: Dark Blue – #0000A8
  • 02: Dark Green – #00A800
  • 03: Dark Cyan – #00A8A8
  • 04: Dark Red – #A80000
  • 05: Dark Purple – #A800A8
  • 06: Orange Brown – #A85400
  • 07: Grey – #A8A8A8
  • 08: Dark Grey – #545454
  • 09: Light Blue – #5454FC
  • 10: Light Green – #54FC54
  • 11: Light Cyan – #5454FC
  • 12: Light Red – #FC5454
  • 13: Magenta – #FC54FC
  • 14: Yellow – #FCFC54
  • 15: White – #FCFCFC

Circles

The QBasic Wikibook shows the CIRCLE command as follows:

CIRCLE ([X Coordinate], [Y Coordinate]), [Radius], [Color Number]

QB64’s Wiki shows:

CIRCLE [STEP](Column,Row), radius%, [color%][, startRadian!, stopRadian!][, aspect!]

Thankfully, when I posted this question on StackOverflow, wolfhammer provided a complex example including a reusable function to achieve the same effect with JavaScript:

var can = document.getElementById('can'); 
var ctx = can.getContext('2d');
var w = can.width;
var h = can.height;
var x = w/2;
var y = h/2;
var radius = 30;
var startAngle = 0;
var endAngle = Math.PI*2;
var color = 'red';
CIRCLE(x, y, radius, color, startAngle, endAngle, .5);
CIRCLE(x+10, y+10, radius, 'blue', startAngle, endAngle, 1.5);
function CIRCLE (column, row, radius, color, startRadian, stopRadian, aspect) {
var rotation = 0;
var anticlockwise = 0;
if (aspect == 1) {
var rx = radius;
var ry = radius;
} else if(aspect < 1) {
var rx = radius * aspect;
var ry = radius;
} else if(aspect > 1) {
var rx = radius;
var ry = radius * (aspect-1);
}
ctx.fillStyle=color;
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.ellipse(x, y, rx, ry, rotation, startAngle, endAngle, anticlockwise);
ctx.fill();
}
<canvas id='can' width='200' height='150'></canvas>

Rectangles

In QuickBasic rectangles are drawn using lines. The syntax (according to QB64 Wiki) looks like:

LINE [STEP] [(column1, row1)]-[STEP] (column2, row2), color[, [{B|BF}]m style%]

Using the B option one can create an outlined box, using the coordinates specified as diagonal corners of the box. Using BF will create a filled box (e.g., with a color).