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- Apache Lucene – open source, search library (Lucene core).
- Apache Solr – open source, enterprise search built on Apache Lucene.
- Elasticsearch – open source, freemium, built on Apache Lucene.
- Carrot2 – open source, clusters results for smaller collections.
- Flexsearch – open source, F#/.NET, built on Apache Lucene.
- Sphinx – open source, C++ search engine, has been used on some large sites (Craigslist, Boardreader).
- SeekQuarry/Yioop – An open source PHP search engine.
- Searx – A spiritual successor to Seeks.
- Terrier – For large document collections, written in Java, open source.
- Riot – An open source, distributed search engine written in Go.
- Yacy – decentralized, open source, P2P.
- Gigablast – open source search engine/crawler written in C/C++.
- Toshi – search engine built on Tantivy in Rust.
- Susper – distributed, built on YaCy and Solr.
- Lemur Project: Indri – offers a number of different search related projects, Indri is the engine which can handle up to 500 million documents.
- Manticore Search – open source, for big data and stream filtering.
- Open Semantic Search – built upon other OSS technology like Solr, Elasticsearch, and Tika.
- Infinity Search – Open source, meta search.
- As of 2/1/21 a search for “civil war” and “python” using the default meta search options did not return outstanding results.
- W. Bruce Croft, Donald Metzler, Trevor Strohman. Search Engines: Information Retrieval in Practice. 2015.
- Available for free from the University of Massachusetts.
- Ian H. Witten, Marco Gori, Teresa Numerico. Web Dragons. Morgan Kaufmann, 7/2010. ISBN: 9780080469096.
- Christopher D. Manning, Prabhakar Raghavan, Hinrich Schutze. Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
- Available for free on Stanford’s website.